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What is cancer?

Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth, and will often form a mass or lump.

Symptoms of certain cancers

Many common signs and symptoms that could suggest cancer. That Long-term constipation, diarrhea, or a change in the size of the stool may be a sign of colon cancer. Pain when passing urine, blood in the urine, or a change in bladder function (such as needing to pass urine more or less often than usual) could be related to bladder or prostate cancer.

Skin cancers may bleed and look like sores that don’t heal. A long-lasting sore in the mouth could be an oral cancer. Especially in people who smoke, chew tobacco, or often drink alcohol. Sores on the penis or vagina may either be signs of infection or an early cancer.

Unusual bleeding can happen in early or advanced cancer. Coughing up blood may be a sign of lung cancer. Blood in the stool (which can look like very dark or black stool) could be a sign of colon or rectal cancer. Cancer of the cervix or the endometrium (lining of the uterus) can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. Blood in the urine may be a sign of bladder or kidney cancer. A bloody discharge from the nipple may be a sign of breast cancer.

Many cancers can be felt through the skin. These cancers occur mostly in the breast, testicle, lymph nodes (glands), and the soft tissues of the body. A lump or thickening may be an early or late sign of cancer. Keep in mind that some breast cancers show up as red or thickened skin rather than a lump.

Indigestion or swallowing problems that do not go away may be signs of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, or pharynx (throat).

Any wart, mole, or freckle that changes color, size, or shape, or that loses its sharp border should be seen by a doctor right away. Any other skin changes should be reported, too. A skin change may be a melanoma which, if found early, can be treated successfully.

A cough that does not go away may be a sign of lung cancer. Hoarseness can be a sign of cancer of the Larynx (voice box) or thyroid gland.


Three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy is a technique where the beams of radiation used in treatment are shaped to match the tumor.

Previously, radiation treatment matched the height and width of the tumor, meaning that healthy tissue was exposed to the beams. Advances in imaging technology have made it possible to locate and treat the tumor more precisely.

Conformal radiation therapy uses the targeting information to focus precisely on the tumor, while avoiding the healthy surrounding tissue. This exact targeting makes it possible to use higher levels of radiation in treatment, which are more effective in shrinking and killing tumors.


Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced type of radiation therapy uses Linear Accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to treat cancer cells. In the traditional external beam photon radiation therapy, most treatments are delivered with radiation beams that are of uniform intensity across the field. The term intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) refers to a radiation therapy technique in which nonuniform fluence is delivered to the patient from any given position of the treatment beam to optimize the composite dose distribution. The fluence files thus generated are electronically transmitted to the linear accelerator, which is computer-controlled, that is, Mosaiq software and hardware to deliver the intensity-modulated beams (IMBs) as calculated.

The principle of IMRT is to treat a patient from a number of different directions with beams of nonuniform fluences, which have been optimized to deliver a high dose to the target volume and acceptably low dose to the surrounding normal structures. The treatment-planning program divides each beam into a large number of beamlets which can vary their intensity and determines optimum setting of their fluences or weights. The optimization process involves inverse planning in which beamlet weights or intensities are adjusted to satisfy predefined dose distribution criteria for the composite plan.

IMRT is an integrated planning and delivery system of intensity-modulated beams, which are optimized to create highly conformal dose distributions for the treatment of planning target volume. Its clinical implementation requires careful testing of its component systems. The IMRT treatment-planning system (TPS) and the intensity-modulated beam (IMB) delivery system. In general, this will involve acquisition and input of appropriate beam data into the computer as required by the TPS algorithm, mechanical checks of the IMB delivery system and dosimetric verification of selected IMBs and IMRT plans. Some of the tests are repeated at scheduled intervals as part of a quality assurance program.


Image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is a technique in which the machine delivers a linear accelerated radiation and captures the image of the respective tumor. The physician compares the received image with the image already captured during the stimulation process.

IGRT is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilizing the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan. The patient is localized in the treatment room in the same position as planned from the reference imaging dataset. An example of IGRT would include localization of a cone beam CT (CBCT) dataset with the planning CT dataset from planning. IGRT would also include matching planar kilovoltage (kV) radiographs or megavoltage (MV) images with digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the planning CT.

IGRT is mainly used to treat tumors located in the parts that are prone to movement such as lungs (affected by breathing), liver and prostate gland. It is also used in tumors situated near a critical gland or tissue.


Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a new type of IMRT technique. The radiotherapy machine rotates around the patient during treatment. The machine continuously reshapes and changes the intensity of the radiation beam as it moves around the body. Elekta VMAT is advanced arc therapy technique, establishes new standards for radiation therapy treatment speed and dose reduction to the patient.

With Elekta VMAT, single or multiple radiation beams sweep in uninterrupted arc(s) around the patient, dramatically speeding treatment delivery. 3D volume imaging technology integrated into Elekta treatment systems increases the precision of Elekta VMAT. This enables physicians to visualize the tumor target at the time of treatment and to guide therapy that both increase the radiation dose to the target and reduce exposure to surrounding healthy tissues.

We offer comprehensive cancer treatment from diagnosis to surgery, medicine and radiotherapy. We have a full team of highly experienced, renowned and committed Oncologists, Medical Physicists, Technologists and support staff. We have CT and Mammogram for cancer diagnosis, stage detection and treatment in a big way. Our warm and caring team is ready to support the patient and their families round the clock. We have expertise in treating every type of cancer from lung cancer to breast, Head and Neck, Prostate, and uro-gynaecological etc…

High Dose Rate (HDR)

Brachytherapy is a growing treatment modality and is commonly used for many indications such as gynecology, prostate, breast, head & neck, skin and rectal. Brachytherapy is suited as a single modality or in combination with other treatments. For example, early stage prostate cancer can be indicated for brachytherapy as a single modality or as a boost after external beam radiation therapy for gynecological cancers.

Brachytherapy involves the use of radioactive sources that are either implanted into the tumour (interstitial brachytherapy) or placed near it, generally in a body cavity (intracavitary brachytherapy) Uterine and cervical cancers are often treated with intracavitary brachytherapy, and prostate cancers can be treated using interstitial brachytherapy. It can also be used to treat early cancers of the tongue and cheek instead of surgery.